POCA & Confiscation

Confiscation, Restraint Orders & Cash Seizures
KANGS has a nationally recognised specialist team handling all issues arising from the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 (‘POCA’) including: Restraint Orders, POCA & Confiscation Proceedings, Cash Seizures and Civil Recovery. We act for Respondents, Defendants and Third Parties affected by any of the above-mentioned matters, and have been ranked nationally for ‘POCA and Asset Forfeiture work’ by the legal directory Chambers UK since 2014.

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What is the Cash Seizure procedure?

The person in possession of the cash is usually questioned by the authorities.The questions are for the purpose of establishing its ownership and whether it is ‘recoverable property’. Recoverable property is property obtained through unlawful conduct or property intended for an unlawful use.

A form called ‘Form A’ must be completed at the scene and served on the person from whom the cash is seized together with a copy of the ‘Receipt For Seized Cash’. There is no power to detain a person at the scene for the purpose of serving Form A.

The Form A must include the time and place of seizure, the Magistrates’ Court at which the application for further detention will take place and, finally, the reason for the cash seizure.

A Detention of Cash Order is usually made by the Magistrates’ Court to allow the authorities to investigate the circumstances surrounding the existence of the cash. Such an order can be made for up to two years.

During the investigation stage, the defence may furnish the authorities with any relevant evidence to demonstrate that the cash is not recoverable property.

An application for the release of the detained cash can be made by the named owner of the cash pursuant to section 297 of POCA. A similar application for the release of the detained cash can be made by the ‘victim or other owner’ of the detained cash under section 301 of POCA.

If neither of the above applications are made, the State can make an application for forfeiture of the cash within the two year period. The forfeiture hearing is a civil hearing conducted in the Magistrates’ Court. The case will be decided on a ‘balance of probabilities’ in accordance with the civil law standard of proof.

How much cash can be detained during a Cash Seizure?

The current level is a minimum sum of £1,000.

The minimum figure has been gradually reduced over time as follows:

  • 16th March 2004: the minimum amount under Section 294 of POCA was lowered from £10,000 to £5,000 
  • 31st July 2006: the minimum amount was reduced from £5,000 to £1,000

How can we help with Cash Seizure Applications?

We have a considerable track record in contesting cash seizure cases across the country and we take great pride in representing a wide spectrum of clients from individuals to large corporations.

Wherever you may be confronted with cash seizure or forfeiture proceedings, including UK airports and seaports we can assist by:

  • Providing you with immediate expert advice on the legality of the cash seizure
  • Advising on the right to challenge the seizure
  • Preparing the relevant applications to the court for the release of the detained cash
  • Representing you at any contested cash forfeiture hearing

How can KANGS help you with a Restraint Order?

  • Provide early advice and guidance on its effect
  • Take immediate action to unfreeze bank accounts to enable essential payments and expenditure to be undertaken
  • Take immediate steps to ensure any business affected is able to function on a day to day basis
  • Seek an increase in the weekly living allowance which it may authorise
  • Apply for its discharge or variation
  • Represent and advise third party individuals and corporate entities which it affects

How can KANGS help you with POCA & Confiscation Proceedings?

We provide early and effective advice, which can often be crucial in the outcome of POCA proceedings.

  • Represent a defendant in confiscation proceeding
  • Represent third parties in confiscation proceedings
  • Challenge the ‘benefit figure’ and ‘realisable assets/available amount figure’
  • Contest the ‘criminal lifestyle assumptions’ often applied by the prosecution
  • Contest a prosecution application to re-open a Confiscation Order
  • Provide representation in applications pursuant to section 23 POCA to vary the ‘available assets figure’ after a Confiscation Order has been made
  • Provide representation and advice regarding enforcement of Confiscation Orders
  • Prepare and submit applications for ‘certificates of inadequacy’
  • Advise regarding the appointment of Management Receivers

Contact KANGS

The expert lawyers at Kangs are available to assist you. We can arrange initial consultations in person, by video call or telephone.

Please contact one of our experts listed below or contact us at:

E: info@kangssolicitors.co.uk

T: 0333 370 4333



One of the very best criminal, fraud and POCA litigation firms in the country.
The firm has particular strength in this area with a dedicated department in POCA-related work.
Dedicated white-collar crime team handling confiscations, restraint orders and cash seizures.
Frequently represents high-profile individuals in Proceeds of Crime proceedings.
Advises on civil cases brought by the NCA under POCA, including Property Freezing and Civil Recovery Orders.
The firm has an exceptional team of lawyers and considerable strength in depth.
It is a first-rate firm that is dedicated to its clients and is tenacious in challenging the prosecution.
The firm is blessed with an abundance of talented solicitors who are true specialists in POCA and asset forfeiture
They are excellent in their client care and have a technical knowledge of POCA and Asset Forfeiture work which is far superior to other firms.


A Restraint Order is a powerful investigative tool used by many of the major prosecuting authorities such as HMRC, SFO, FCA, CPS and Trading Standards. Restraint Orders are usually obtained without notice or prior warning to an individual or business and can have a devastating financial impact if matters are not addressed immediately. The effect is to freeze all assets belonging to an individual or business, this includes provisions requiring the respondent to provide certain documentation and information such as the disclosure of all assets and bank accounts in the UK and overseas.

A provision ordering the respondent to repatriate all assets and funds to the UK within a strict time limit. A requirement for the respondent to provide a statement of truth detailing all financial assets and expenditure during a specified period. A restriction on the amount of funds to be utilised for personal living expenses and/or business expenditure.

Confiscation Proceedings

Our specialist POCA & Confiscation team regularly works alongside the leading barristers and forensic accountants and prides itself on providing quick and effective advice in all situations.

We are regularly instructed by defendants in relation to confiscation proceedings after they have been convicted. We advise clients in such circumstances and, if appropriate, take over the conduct of their defence of confiscation proceedings following conviction in proceedings where we have not previously been involved.

POCA is a highly specialised area and our experienced team has had considerable success with members of our team having conducted some of the leading reported cases in this area of law.

Cash Seizure
Detention & Forfeiture

POCA authorises a relevant officer of the state (including police and HMRC officers) to seize cash in certain circumstances, detain it pending an investigation into its origins or intended use and thereafter to apply for its forfeiture.

The current level of cash able to be detained is a minimum sum of £1,000.

The minimum figure has been gradually reduced over time as follows:

  • 16th March 2004: the minimum amount under Section 294 of POCA was lowered from £10,000 to £5,000
  • 31st July 2006: the minimum amount was reduced from £5,000 to £1,000


Account Freezing Order, POCA

Positive Outcome Achieved in Forfeiture Proceedings

KANGS has effectively assisted a client in achieving a positive settlement in forfeiture proceedings commenced by the National Investigation Service (NATIS) relating to 'Bounce Back Loans.' This involved securing the lifting of Account Freezing Orders placed on our client's accounts. Tim Thompson of KANGS briefly outlines the proceedings. The Circumstances of the forfeiture proceedings The […]
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Positive Outcome Achieved in Forfeiture Proceedings
To prevent an offender benefiting financially from their criminal conduct, the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 (‘POCA’), enables the Prosecution to request the Court for Confiscation Proceedings following a conviction. On the 28th March 2024 Chelmsford Crown Court made a Confiscation Order of £22,305 against Stephen Bear, a television ‘reality star’, following his conviction for […]
A common intention constructive trust is a legal concept that arises automatically, without the need for a prior written Declaration of Trust, when parties have not formally documented their agreement. It occurs when it would be unjust for one party to disregard the other's beneficial interest in an asset. The shared intention for both parties […]
We have previously shared articles that delve into various aspects of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 (‘POCA’) including 'Tainted Gifts'. This legislation outlines the guidelines and procedures governing the confiscation process, which defendants may undergo upon conviction for specific offences. POCA seeks to recover any financial gain enjoyed by a convicted defendant, in respect […]

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